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INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




MARCH 15, 1937 

A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 

• OFFICE -OF INDIAN -AFFAIRS- 

j WASHINGTON, P-C- 




INDIANS AT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF MARCH 15, 1937 

Volume IV Number 15 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Additional Rehabilitation Fund To Be 

Available 6 

Senators Wheeler And Frazier Introduce Bill 

To Repeal Indian Reorgan ization Act 8 

Seminole Impressions Louis Balsam 11 

Florida Land Purchases Go Forward J. M. Stewart 17 

Excerpt From The Commissioner's Annual 

Report Of 1891 20 

' Pima Water Payment Controversy Resolved 22 

We Live In New Mexico Emerson Ben Yazza 23 

Reader Disagrees On Indian Herb Knowledge; 

M. W. Stirling Amplifies Statement 25 

Indian Service Education Workers Meet 29 

Education Workers Attend Professional 

Meetings 29 

Lula Belle P. J. Van Alstyne 30' 

Cooperation Between Service And Councils; 

Handling Of Reservation Complaints 31 

Who ' s Who 35 

Cottages At Carson Agency Albert M. Hawley 36 

Three Pots Ruth Willis Pray 38 

The Saga Of I.E.C.W. On The Crow 

Reservation Ray Chagnon, Jr 41 

Indian Silver Work Standards Announced 45 

Jackson Chequatah ' s Heirloom 47 

Cattaraugus Indians Share Vital 

Community Life 48 

From I.E.C.W. Reports 49 



A WINNEBAGO MOTHER AND SON 




Photograph Through Courtesy of Idario Scacheri 



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VOLU/AL IV- -MARXH 15, 193 7- -MUMBLE 15- 

SIX EFFORTS IN CONGRESS TO DESTROY THE INDIAN RE ORGANIZATION ACT 

The Indian Reorganization Act, as a body of authorities 
with supporting appropriations, is not yet two years old. 

It was made effective for themselves by 183 tribes through 
majority votes at secret-ballot elections. Then, last year, it was 
amended to embrace the Eskimos and Indians who are half the popula- 
tion of Alaska. And its essential provisions, supplemented by fur- 
ther provisions alike in kind, were extended to the Oklahoma tribes 
except the sages. So the Act has become the "organic law" of 
eighty per cent of Indian life. 

Not carelessly was the Act adopted by Congress in 1934, 
but after hearings which continued for months, after nation-wide 
publicity, and after study and debate by congresses of Indians in 
many parts of the Indian country. 

In its main structures the Act is a simple one. It de- 
clares and provides that Indian land losses must stop. It requires 



that timber, grass, soil and water on Indian lands must be con- 
served. It starts the re-vesting of landless Indians with land for 
subsistence. It provides for the advanced schooling of Indians. It 
gives to Indians a preference in their own Indian Service employ- 
ment. It establishes a credit fund and system for Indian agri- 
culture and industry. It gives to the tribes a moderate amount 
of local self-government. It gives to the tribes a veto-power 
over the leasing or disposal of their natural resources and over 
the expenditure of their moneys held in government trust, and an 
advisory status with respect to Federal appropriations for Indian 
benefit. Finally, it gives to organized tribes the right to go in- 
to court to defend their own civil and property rights. 

All the essential features of the Act are stated in the 
above paragraph. Comprehensively, the Act looks and builds forward, 
to a growing Indian life of future years. It makes possible liberty 
and responsibility within continuing Federal aid and protection. It 
implements the Constitutional rights of Indians - implements their 
citizenship. 

On page 8 is reprinted a statement given to the Associated 
Press on March 3rd. Readers of that statement will understand that 
the expected effort to abolish the Indian Reorganization Act has 
begun. 

Of course an attempt to abolish the Indian Reorganization 
Act was expected. It was certain to come, from two wholly distinct 
and unaffiliated groups, mentioned below. 



Indian property rights have not been protected -until 
now. Huge as have "been the inroads on Indian property of every 
class** there even now remains an Indian estate of nearly eighty 
thousand square miles. Great spaces of Indian range-land still 
are leased to white lessees; Indian timber still is "being cut 
principally "by white operators; much of the best Indian farm-land 
still is leased to whites. Did anyone expect that the interests 
adversely concerned with so huge a property stake would yield in- 
stantly and supinely, and would not strike hack? 

But there is another group, who do not want Indian prop- 
erty diverted, who have "battled and will battle to protect Indian 
property rights, yet who dislike the Reorganization Act because 
they think they find in it a romantic, even an alien element. This 
group contains active friends of the Indian cause; but those parts 
of the Act which establish or reinforce Indian self-determination, 
in the whole range of matters from use of property to enjoyment of 



** Since 1887, through land allotment, usually forced, nearly 
90,000,000 Indian acres have passed to white ownership. Of the 
allotted lands still owned by Indians, fully half have been placed 
in so impracticable a condition from the Indian-use standpoint that 
they have to be leased to whites. Five hundred million dollars of 
Indian tribal trust funds have been dissipated. Huge inroads have 
been made into the Indian-owned forest and oil fields. The carry- 
ing capacity of the residual Indian range has been cut in half 
through soil wastage due to uncontrolled grazing. Indian claims, 
to date, of more than a billion and a half dollars, have been piled 
against the government through lawless acts by a Congress using its 
plenary power toward Indians, and of this total of claims, to date, 
less than twenty millions have been collected by the Indians. 



culture, profoundly offend the members of this group. They do not 
believe in this part of the Act; they do not like it. Yet to the 
Indians it is an essential part of the Act - indeed, to scores of 
tribes it is the very life of the Act. And from the standpoint of 
practical, operative success, these less tangible features of the 
Act are indispensable. For it is true today as it has been true 
since the dawn of the world, that "without a vision, a people per- 
isheth." And the right of Indians to group self-determination, to 
the oursuit of their own vision of the good , is so fundamental that 
it cannot be surrendered; nor can it be segregated and walled-off 
from the material part; the Indians must assert this right even if 
it loses them some friends. 

From this second group, as from the other group first- 
named, attack against the Indian Reorganization Act was bound to 
come. 

And from both quarters, the attack was likely to be, as 
it'is proving to be, a wholesale attack, not a discriminating one. 
The reason for this fact lies at the heart of the Reorganization 
Act itself. For the Act seeks to save and increase Indian property 
throug h saving and increasing the self-activity of Indians ; and it 
holds out for Indians something more than, although including, per- 
sonal material advantage to be enjoyed by individual Indians. It 
holds out a renewed group-destiny — truly a group -destiny, though 
realized within, and in harmony with, the embracing commonwealth 
of America. 



So the foreseen onslaught against the Indian Reorganiza- 
tion Act has arrived. It started in Nevada. There the Pyramid 
Lake 3and, organized under the Act, announced that if the govern- 
ment should delay in a certain necessary court action, the Band 
itself would invoke its powers under the Act and would eject the 
squatters now occupying its lands. The answer came in a bill, 
introduced January 6 by Senator McCarran, which if passed and 
signed would abolish the Reorganization Act for all of Nevada's 
Indians. Thereafter, Senator McCarran introduced a bill (January 
15), which if passed and signed would transfer the Indian title 
to the whites without Indian consent, and without compensation 
beyond a tiny instalment payment made some years ago. 

Following Senator McCarran 's bill, the onslaught developed 
on a wide front. On January 14, Senator Murray introduced a bill 
seeking to repeal the Reorganization Act for all of Montana. Sena- 
tor Chavez on Janua.ry 15 introduced a bill forbidding the Navajo 
tribe ever to take refuge in the Reorganization Act. On January 
22, Representative McGroarty struck in behalf of the State of 
California; his bill would repeal the Act for California. On Feb- 
ruary 11, Representative 'Malley put in a bill to repeal that 
section of the Reorganization Act which gives preference to Indians 
for Indian Service employment. And on February 24, Senators Wheeler 
and Frazier introduced a bill to destroy the Reorganization Act 
everywhere. See page 8. 



Will any or all of these onslaughts succeed? Prophecy 
is hazardous, hut it is believed they will not. If the several 
hills should he supported through a searching criticism of the Act 
and of its administration, they will do good. There are some 
clumsy mechanical features in the Act which need to he simplified; 
and administration always is justly subject to criticism. Were 
the Wheeler-Frazier hill to become law, it would bring the beginning 
of a long Indian night, perhaps the last. Therefore, it is be- 
lieved it will not become law. Meantime, the onslaught will serve 
to remind Indians that their cause is a battleground, now as long 
ago; an enduring labor, and a battleground. 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



ADDITIONAL REHABILITATION FUND TO BE AVAILABLE 



In response to requests from the Indian Office for funds to carry 
on further rehabilitation work, President Roosevelt, in a letter of February 
17 to the Secretary of the Treasury, directed that $249,100 of emergency 
funds be allocated to the Indian Service for such work. 

Letters of instruction to superintendents are being t>repared, and 
will reach the field shortly. 

The range of nrojects for which the money may be expended is the 
same as under last year's allocation, and includes the construction and re- 
pair of houses, outbuildings and barns, domestic water development, subsist- 
ence garden -nrojects and furniture, handicraft and other small self-helti 
projects. The funds must be snent oy June 30, 1937. 



TVTO SIOUX WOMEN 
(One With Dress Ornamented By Shells, Another With "Pipe-Stem" Necklace Of Bone) 




Photograph hy Mario Scacheri 



SENATORS WHEELER AND FRAZIER INTRODUCE BILL TO REPEAL INDIAN REORGANIZATION ACT 



On March 1, Senators Wheeler and Frazier introduced S. 1736 , whose 
provisions would repeal the Indian Reorganization Act in its entirety. The 
Commissioner's comment, released to the press on March 3, follows: 

************* 

STATEMENT BY COMMISSIONER JOHN COLLIER, OF THE OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 

TO THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. ON THE ATTESTED DESTRUCTION OF THE 

INDIAN REORGANIZATION ACT BY SENATE BILL 1736 

Senators Wheeler and Frazier have "been good friends to the Indians 
and their cause. For this reason, their action in sponsoring an attenrot to 
repeal the Indian Reorganization Act is mystifying. Their reasons, as re- 
ported by the Associated Press, are even more mystifying. 

Neither of them has a word to say about the main positive features 
of the Act, which both of them voted to make into law. The Act stops the 
further wastage of Indian lands through allotment. It sets up an agricultural 
credit system for Indians. It gives Indians a preference in Indian Service 
employment. It establishes opportunities for advanced education for Indians. 
It requires protection of their lands against destructive uses resulting in 
deforestation and soil erosion. It sets in motion a process of re-vesting 
the landless Indians with land on which they can subsist. These are only 
some of the main positive features of the Indian Reorganization Act which 
Senators Wheeler and Frazier propose to destroy. 

The Associated Press, interviewing them, apparently obtained no 
statement from either one or the other as to any of these nositive features 
of the Act, or of the accompanying Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act, whose enact- 
ments have brought a new era to about 80 per cent of the Indians. Respect- 
ing the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act, which carries to Oklahoma the main benefits 
of the Indian Reorganization Act, they have nothing to say and they do not seek 
its repeal. But if they are to be consistent, they will attempt likewise to 
repeal the Oklahoma Act. 

Their reasons, as quoted by the Associated Press, are partly irrele- 
vant and partly inaccurate. 

Senator Wheeler is quoted as objecting that features stricken from 
the original Wheeler-Howard Bill are nevertheless being put into effect by 
the Secretary of the Interior through constitutions granted to the tribes 
which have organized under the Act. But the Act ejcpressly states that the 
powers vested in Indian tribes through their constitutions may be not only 
those specified powers named in the Act but "in addition, all tjowers vested 



8 



in any Indian tribe or tribal council by existing law." The "existing law", 
as it stood before the Indian Reorganization Act was signed, gave to the De- 
partment certain powers to vest authority in tribes, and directly vested 
certain authorities in tribes. The Indian Reorganization Act extended these 
authorities and limited the authority of the Department. Why has it been 
wrong for the Secretary of the Interior to obey the express language of the 
Indian Reorganization Act, and to vest the tribes with all those authorities 
given by prior acts as well as by the Reorganization Act? 

Senator Frazier, as quoted by the Associated Press, voices a criti- 
cism which seems to be exactly the opposite of Senator Wheeler's. He is 
quoted as stating that a majority of the Indians have complained that instead 
of getting more self-government through the Act, they were getting less self- 
government. This could only mean that the constitutions granted to the tribes, 
instead of going beyond the scope of the Indian Reorganization Act in their 
grant of powers, as alleged by Senator Wheeler, have withheld from the tribes 
even those powers contained in the Reorganization Act. The allegation is not 
supported by the facts, nor is it accurate to state that the majority of the 
Indians, or even any substantial minority of them, have complained that they 
were being dictated to. Actually, out of 230 tribes, 170 adopted the Act by 
majority votes, and are subsisting under it; none of them has asked that it be 
repealed; and many of the tribes which voted not to accept the Act are now 
desirous of being permitted to vote once more upon it, in order to get its 
protections and benefits. 

Senator Frazier makes another statement, as quoted, to the effect 
that Indians who did not accept the Reorganization Act have been discriminated 
against and specifically, have been punished by being removed from relief rolls. 
Senator Frazier states that there have been such complaints. He does not state 
that they are true. Such complaints, if made, are in fact grossly untrue. 

The expenditure of emergency funds for Indian tribes has been carried 
out with no relation whatsoever to the Indian Reorganization Act. The expend- 
itures of regular funds have been carried out as specifically directed by Con- 
gress. Tribes not under the Act have received in many instances greater quotas 
of the emergency moneys of all sorts than tribes under the Act. Indian re- 
lief has been expended according to available funds, human need and the op- 
portunity to expend the funds usefully upon Indian-owned land. 

Even were Senator Frazier* s allegations, as quoted, supported by 
fact, they would provide no reason whatsoever for seeking repeal of the In- 
dian Reorganization Act. There would be criticisms directed against administra- 
tion and correction logically would be sought through demanding administra- 
tive reforms. 

The existence of the facts is denied. But if they did exist, they 
would furnish no justification for an attempt to destroy the Indian Reorgani- 
zation Act with its grants of protection of Indian property, new land, credit, 
improved education and all those other benefits which have made the Act the 
foundation of a new and more hopeful life among the Indians. 

In my opinion there is no chance that the bill introduced by Sena- 
tors Wheeler and Frazier will be passed by Congress, or if passed, signed 
by the President. 



to 




10 



SEMINOLE IMPRESSIONS 
By Louis Balsam - Field Representative - Office Of Indian Affairs 

For three days it had rained in southern Florida, turning that al- 
ready glamorous land into a country far away and long ago: a jungle world of 
lavishly growing greenness. From the high bridge where a man leaned over a 
rampant stream, flowing out of the steaming Everglades, he could see strange 
sights. An uprooted palmetto glided dizzily by. Bewildering assortments of 
bulbous plants, thick and deeply green, danced about the blackish waters. 
Fish flicked their tails above the surface where scores and scores of them 
leaped and dived. 

Wherever the man looked, he saw such luxurious and extravagant signs 
of life as to make him feel at the very center of all Creation; strange, dis- 
tant, fascinating, beautiful and terrible. He peered as far as he could up 
and down the stream, hoping somehow to look into its heart, to see along its 
banks or upon its troubled surface some signs, too, of human life - of the 
Seminoles he had journeyed across half a continent and through the flooded 
wreckages of a nation's disaster, to see. "Seminoles," he said half aloud, 
"Seminoles!" 

Inside him all sorts of thoughts glowed and glimmered. The bridge 
had already become the link with another world. "This, too, is America," he 
mused. "Here, too, Indians once roamed in this jungle land; and all of it 
alien, exotic, wholly unlike anything else in America, all of it was theirs." 
He recalled the little he had already seen; the vast swamps, one alligator 
in a jungle river, herons, streams filled with fish and deep lakes beyond the 
reach of tender feet, vast forests penetrable only to those who loved it and 
who proved their love by living with it; living in it and upon its hospitality. 

He reflected upon Miami, that city so near and so tremendously 
modern. A city that was beautiful in natural surroundings and into which white 
men had poured millions of money for investments. He thought of the thousands 
of sun-seeking, pleasure-bent, vacation-hunting, business and professional 
people of all classes, strata and creeds thronging the streets of that nearby 
city where, nightly, hundreds of thousands of dollars spilled across gambling 
tables, and where it was easily possible for a couple to be entertained at a 
nightclub and come away having spent more than a hundred dollars; where rooms 
and suites costing as much as $50 to $150 a day were plentifully available; 
and where millionaire vied with multi-millionaire in spending, in display 
and in astounding conspicuous wasting. 

The man thought of the Miami of the Seminole camps, where in the 
thick of all this elaborate modernity, Indians on display were going about 



11 



their own simple affairs, Indians who seemed to enjoy their "public" despite 
the fact that some of them were degenerating from its alcoholic-speeded tempo 
effects. 

"Life, oh life'." he breathed. A heavy sense-stirring fragrance of 
orange blossoms, of earth odors, of wetness and vapors and growing things now 
overlaid his thinking. "All of this beauty — all of it America — all of it 
once Seminole land" — were phrases going through his mind. It was now nearly 
seven in the morning. 

An automobile drew up. Driving it was John Pine-Branch, a Seminole. 
The man sat down beside him. "I take you my home. Everglades. Indian camp. 
Very far," said John. For many miles long the Tamiami (Tampa-Miami) Trail 
they drove: a trail vertably cut through the Everglades on either side of 
this hard, fine, marvelously efficient, modern highway* 




An Elderly Seminole Couple 

Often for an hour at a time neither spoke, these two, so many mil- 
lions of racial and conditioned miles apart: these two, so closely akin 
despite that difference; akin in basic sympathy, in simple human urges, and 
as the white man la.ter found, in a certain philosophic approach to life. For 
the white man with all his "civilization" and the Seminole with none of it 
had much in common. Both, as it happened, were passionately fond of simple 
living, of keeping as closely attuned to nature as possible. Both, coinci- 
dently enough, thought that outdoor life, that absence of tinsel and frip- 
peries, that the nearness of women, children, woods, streams and similar 
manifestations of life, were here for humans to use and to enjoy. Both be- 
lieved unnecessary the greed and bitterness which made men try to destroy 
such natural life or to limit its enjoyment to small acquisitive groups; 
that such greeds were signs of the degeneration of life itself, certainly of 
civilization boasting of it. 



12 



Yet here they were, two men mature enough and philosophic enough 
to realize the futility of trying to correct in one week or even in one life- 
time a complex chain of negative events taking nearly 300 years to develop. 
Here they were, one an Indian living at an exhibition camp in Miami, yearning 
for his Everglades and without compunction deserting his Miami job to get 
back to them whenever the urge became overpowering. An untutored man he was, 
being unable either to read or to write. Uneducated? Only in the sense of 
lacking book learning! The other man was a product of a great university. 
He was city born and. city bred. He had almost been led to believe that na- 
tural things were ridiculous. Almost. Here they were, one man a guide to 
the other, an official on duty. Both were ostensibly at work, yet deep .deep 
down each was exulting in going back, if only for a little while, to Nature, 
to Life, to Beauty. 

Imraokalee, at last. Immokalee. "It means home in Seminole," John 
Pine-Branch announced. "We £0 home now." The Chevrolet turned abruptly from 




A Seminole Family At Meal Time 

the one street village. A freight engineer seeing them at the crossing geni- 
ally kept the long Sain of cars waiting until they bumped over the tracks, 
fo/a brief moiaenf a slippery dirt road, then water. For the next few hour, 
the Seminole driver piloted that car through water, never less than hub deep. 
Turns twists, through swamp, sand and always through water, deeper into the 
E^ergiadl Swamp, Stress growths, palmetto clumps and bird life were every- 
where Hundreds and hundreds of white herons and blue herons abounded. Now 
and again a pelican with vast wings outspread circled the car. 

Rain. Heavy, implacable, silver and slanting rain. It never stopped 
during the whole of the trip. The white man had never found rain so satisfy- 
ing before. It made him seem as one with this jungle, and especially with the 



13 



happy Seminole beside him; a Seminole who was going home. Suddenly a clearing 
developed. Out of that trackless swamp, an opening appeared. Home. Home as 
it must have seemed to those earliest white Americans who penetrated into our 
West, with few tools, no money, hut with high hopes, vitalized courage and a 
dream. Not all of our forebears dreamed of conquest. No. Some, like these 
Seminoles, had visions of a home. Home away from the crowded centers of life 
away from where there had been too much love of living: a home to themselves, 
where life might expand and unfold as conceivably it may have been "meant" to 
be. This Seminole camp was surely that! 

On raised platforms, under thatched roofs, open to the wind and the 
sun and the skies, these few families in this deeply remote place lived and 
loved and had their being: these platforms and the wet-, lavishly growing 
swamps and forests around them. Here we found a small handful of men, women 
and children, whose art was the art of living; whose most colorful expression 
of that art was embodied in the clothes they wore. 

All of the Seminole love of color was concentrated into a one-piece 
garment for the men and a two-piece garment for the women, Into blouses and 
skirts, Seminole women had put such lusciousness of color, such unusually 
vivid color combinations and such patient artistry as one had almost given up 
hoping to see in America again. Into an average garment, these women had 
patterned over a thousand bits of clothl Little odds and ends of cotton ma- 
terials cast off as useless (ironically enough) by white women in nearby cities. 
One such blouse was a beautifully-blended symphony of violet, indigo, blue, 
bright yellow, red, magenta, peach, Mediterranean blue, white and coral, and 
other colors, all fused into a pattern at once striking and lovely and symbol- 
ic of much of life about the wearers. 

As the white man strolled about, a boy of fourteen slipped quietly 
into the camp, carrying two otters he had trapped. A beautiful lad he was. 
Swarthy, lithe, soft-spoken. His black eyes were quietly looking over the 
newcomers and in those eyes the white man glimpsed as glowing a light as he 
has ever seen in any human, anywhere. The lad and the Seminole guide began 
to talk; quietly, courteously as two gentlemen at a London club might: two 
who had liked and respected each other. 

Without a word a woman took hold of the two dead otters. Quickly 
she separated the animals from their skins, with a deftness and an artistry 
good to behold. 

The white man strolled over to one of the raised platform homes. 
He made a rapid mental inventory of what he saw: A few pots, two changes 
of costumes, a six-foot fishing hook-spear, a hand-operated sewing machine 
and a blanket roll. He went over to John Pine-Branch. "Is this all these 
people have to live with? Can they go through the whole of their lives with 
only these?" 



14 



John looked at him very steadily. "We can. We want to. And that's 
all we want of white people. To leave us alone. To go away. Everglades ours. 
Always ours." 

"But schools. Schools for these children," the white man said 
hesitatingly. "No good," said John. "No damn good for us." He looked around 
him in a wide circle. "School teach - kids Everglades?" The man said he doubted 
it. "School teach kids hunt? Fish? Trap? Better than father or mother?" 
"No I" The white man said flatly. "What-for school? Make Seminole peonle white 
people?" He didn't wait for a reply, "No!" he said. "We Seminoles today. 
Seminole long ago, Seminole till die. IThat you give us? More sun? More duck? 
More fish? Yes! More when you leave us. All was plenty "before." 

"How about doctors," the white man asked, now thoroughly challenged 
and chastened, "and nurses?" 

"All right many times," said Pine-Branch. "Can help much. But our 
doctors good doctors, too. We need our land "back. Leave us our Everglades. 
We don't bother you no more. Land is ours. Just go away." He was smiling 
now. "Look!" At the edge of a path a large turtle waddled. He turned it 
over, yanked out its neck and tied it, all in a few seconds. "Good breakfast 
tomorrow," he said. "Come along." We walked through water to a half dense 
growth of nalmetto nearby. "Cabbage. Grows all the time. Plenty. Come!" 
Beyond the clearing was another. Bananas. "All we can eat. With almost no 
work. River with plenty fish." He waved a hand overhead. "Palm leaves, 
wood! We have everything. Everything! " 

The white man never forgot that statement. He thought of other In- 
dians with whom he had been fortunate to achieve friendship: of the Iroquois 
of New York State, who had made their own adjustment to white man's civiliza- 
tion, of the Pomos of Northern California who had made still another adjust- 
ment. He looked about him at these Seminoles and realized that here poignantly 
and beautifully enough was a small group of people who had almost literally re- 
fused to exchange their own way of life for that of another even though that 
other way was considered more civilized and was looked up to by millions of 
people everywhere on earth. Here was a triumph as deep, rich and as fine as 
anything he had known or read of. 

John Pine-Branch was right. The Seminoles did have everything. If 
they had Everglades, that is; enough Everglades to be able to function normal- 
ly within them. The Seminoles who had Everglades needed nothing more; certain- 
ly nothing the white man could give them. This was a great achievement in it- 
self. In every important sense, these Seminoles were wealthy. For what is 
it that any millionaire has which goes beyond giving him all that he really 
wants — and that in abundance? How many millionaires had leisure — time to 
live and love and play, time to spend glorious hours in sweet solitudes? How 
many were loved for themselves? Yes, the white man thought, "land." "Ever- 
glades - give it back to them." He contemplated the fine dignity and the pride 
of John Pine-Branch and of other Seminole men and women he had met. They had 
not asked for thi9 land. They assumed that the Everglades belonged to them. 
All they did request was to be let alone to enjoy it. 

15 



The white man thought of the stability and courage of these Indian 
■people who despite all the glitter and all the tremendous pressure of white 
man's civilization, still considered their own simpler lives, their own na- 
tural environment suoerior for them. That was courage of a fine and exception- 
al nature . 

He let his mind, now, carry him hack to far-off Washington, and to 
John Collier, and Harold Ickes, and the late Mrs. Ickes who had devoted years 
and time and extraordinarily intelligent and effective energy in expressing, 
also, a fine courage regarding Indian affairs. And working with them was 
Jim Stewart devoting his life towards "bringing back to the Seminoles and 
other Indians everywhere in the United States, some of the land, at least, 
which should never have been taken from them. The white man pictured, in 
Washington, and elsewhere many, many men and women, most of them working at 
difficult tasks for wages far below what such efforts would pay in commercial 
endeavors; working quietly and effectively to help Indians regain something, 
at least, of that rich and deep and satisfying life which once was theirs. 

"Courage," he said to himself. "We white people need, urgently, a 
new kind of courage! The courage to help us become greater than, bigger than 
our old and ugly greeds, our cancerous ambitions, our urge to pile surplus hold- 
ings upon other surplus holding for what? A new courage, yes." In 

his own lifetime that white man had already seen progress. Progress that was 
heartening, especially in the last three years.* He thanked G-od for that, and 
for what was still to come. 




Houses On Stilts iOor Dryness 



'See announcement on the following nage. 



16 



FLORIDA LAND PURCHASES GO FORWARD 



By J.M. Stewart, Director of Lands 



In Glades County, Florida, there is being purchased, 
under the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 
1934, (48 Stat. L. , 984), an area of 6778.53 acres at a total cost 
of approximately $31,477. These purchases have received Department- 
al approval and it is expected that payment will he made in the 
very near future. Also in Glades County and contiguous to the In- 
dian Reorganization Act purchases, the Resettlement Administration 
is acquiring for Indian use 27,120.84 acres. Exchanges of several 
scattered tracts now owned hy the Federal Government for land owned 
by the State of Florida will increase the uroject area by an addi- 
tional 1,920 acres. 

Adjacent to the existing Federal Reservation in Hendry 
County, Florida, it is proposed to acquire, under the provisions 
of the Indian Reorganization Act, an area of 10,880 acres at a 
total cost of $25,000. Option covering these lands has been re- 
ceived in this Office but certain defects therein have temporarily 
delayed its acceptance. Exchanges of scattered tracts for State- 
owned lands will add an additional 1,280 acres to this area. 

The proper authorities of the State of Florida have un- 
der immediate consideration the matter of withdrawing the exist- 
ing State Seminole Reservation, consisting of approximately 99,000 
acres in the Monroe County, and the establishment of a similar res- 
ervation to contain 165,000 acres of land in Broward County ad- 
joining the existing Federal Reservation in Hendry County. 

Three small scattered tracts of land, containing 120 
acres, owned by the Federal Government and located several miles 
northwest of the Seminole Agency near Dania, Florida, are being ex- 
changed with the State for a like area located directly at the 
Seminole Agency. 



CONSTITUTION AND CHARTER NEWS 

The Walker River (Carson Agency) Indians accepted their constitution 
on February 20 by a vote of 123 to 18. On February 27, Indians at Manchester 
(Sacramento) accepted their charter by a vote of 24 to 3; the Makah (Taholah) 
Indians ratified theirs by a vote of 75 to 2; and the Washoes (Carson) voted 
53 to for their charter. 

The Iowa, Kickapoo and Sac and Fox constitutions (Potawatorai Agency) 
have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior. 

17 



FROM MISSIO N AGENCY, RIVERSID E. CALIFO RNIA 




An Indian Lace Maker At Work 




Pola Mission - Pounded 1816 



18 



FROM MISSION AGENCY . RIVERSIDB. CALIFORNIA 




Road To Barona Ranch 




Washington Palms Near Agency 



19 



EXCERPT FROM THE COMMISSIONER'S REPORT OF 1891 . 

Selected By D'Arcy McNickle 

Administrative Assistant - Office Of Indian Affairs 



The 1891 Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs is full of 
optimism. The Indian "problem" is on the way out. Land allotments and 
boarding school education are the reasons why. 

Of course, the problem is complex, because the Indian population 
is complex, representing M a great number of distinct phases of human develop- 
ment" - and not all the phases nice to contemplate. "Some (tribes) are yet 
very degraded, living a mere animal life with few of the characteristics of 
humanity, while others have already become absorbed into our national life 
and are not distinguishable from their fellow citizens." 

There was something rather ominous, perhaps threatening, in the 
following paragraph: "No pains should be spared to teach the rising genera- 
tion that the old condition of things is rapidly and forever passing away and 
that they must prepare themselves for self-support. This is the inevitable, 
from which there is no escape. They should be taught that their future lies 
largely in their own hands and that if they improve the opportunities for ed- 
ucation now so generously offered them by the Government, they may become 
intelligent, prosperous, strong and happy; but that if they neglect them they 
will be swept aside or crushed by the irresistible tide of civilization which 
has no place for drones, no sympathy with idleness and no rations for the 
improvident." 

And there was certitude in a passage like the following: "Perhaps 
one of the most mischievous fallacies is the assumption that because the Anglo- 
Saxon race has been centuries in developing its present proud civilization it 
is therefore necessary that the same length of time should be consumed by 
the Indians in passing through the successive stages of economic and social 
evolution. Time as an element in human progress is relative, not absolute. 
Indian children taken away from a life which represents Anglo-Saxon barbarism 
of more than a thousand years ago may, if placed at an early age in proper 
relations with modern civilization, enter very largely into participation of 
the best results of nineteenth century life. A good school may thus bridge 
over for them the dreary chasm of a thousand years of tedious evolution." 

And certitude is piled upon certitude in the following: "If ... there 
could be gathered by the end of 1893 into well-manned and suitably equipped 
schools nearly all of the Indian children, and they could be kept there for 
ten years, the work would be substantially accomplished; for within those ten 
years there would grow up a generation of English-speaking Indians, accustomed 
to the ways of civilized life and sufficiently intelligent and strong to for- 
ever after be the dominant force among them." 

20 



The Report acknowledges one stumbling block which in the past has 
slowed the progress of Indian administration; hut fortunately, we gather, 
this stumbling block is being dislodged without much difficulty. The im- 
pediments of course were those treaties made with Indian tribes which placed 
certain checks upon the power of the Government to make free with tribal 
property and tribal life. The Report states rather complainingly that "The 
charge most frequently brought against the American people in reference to 
their dealings with the Indians is that of injustice. This charge is some- 
times flippantly made and oftentimes rests upon no historical basis and yet 
it is unfortunately true that the imnression widely prevails in the popular 
mind and is deeply rooted in the mind of the Indians that treaties have been 
broken and that the Government has failed in numerous instances to perform 
its most solemn obligations." At that point the Report first quibbles, by 
stating that "TChile it is desirable that we should nay the Indians to the 
last dollar all that is due them, we should expect of them the fullfillment 
of their obligations"; and then gives away the whole show by admitting: 

"It is also worthy of consideration that in the past we have made 
agreements which later developments have shown to be unwise and undesirable 
both for them and for us. Such are all those treaties which recognize the 

autonomy and perpetual independent nationality of the tribes There 

is no piece within our borders for independent, alien governments and the In- 
dians must of necessity surrender their autonomy and become merged in our 
nationality. In requiring this we do not ask that they concede anything of 
real value to themselves, but only that for their highest welfare they abandon 
their tribal organizations, their provincialisms, their isolation and accept 
in lieu thereof American citizenship and full participation in all the riches 
of our civilization. By this great transformation they are the gainers, rather 
than we ourselves." 

(At that moment, we should remember an army of pillagers was marching 
upon Indian territory in anticipation of the time when the Five Tribes would 
give up their "provincialism", and with it their control of tribal property.) 

By reasoning of that sort it was fairly simple to remove the obstacle 
of solemn obligations. After all, if the whole Indian race was to be speedily 
transformed, there could be no excuse for letting minor details hold up the 
process. And that such a transformation was in process and would succeed 
speedily, there was no doubt. Optimism rode high. "The great forces now at 
work; land in severalty with its accompanying dissolution of the tribal re- 
lation and breaking up of the reservation; the destruction of the agency system; 
citizenship, and all that belongs thereto of manhood, independence, privilege 
and duty; education, which seeks to bring the young Indians into right relation- 
ship with the age in which they live and to put into their hands the tools by 
which they may gain for themselves food and clothing and build for themselves 
homes, will, if allowed to continue undisturbed a reasonable length of time, 
accomplish their beneficent ends." 

How long a time? Not too long. There was optimism. Consider: "It 
is not safe to prophesy, and in view of the past hundred years it may be unwise 

21 



to predict, yet I will venture to say that it is possible, "before the close 
of the present century, to carry this matter so far toward its final consum- 
mation as to put it "beyond the range of anxiety. Not everything can he ac- 
complished within that time, "but enough can "be done so that the Commissioner 
who writes the 70th annual report can speak of the Indian solution instead 
of the Indian pro Diem." 

****** * 



PIMA WATER PAYMENT CONTROVERSY RESOLVED BY TRIBAL COUNCIL'S ACTION 



On March 3, the Tribal Council of the Pima Tribe in Arizona, took 
action which broke a threatened deadlock which might have left thousands of 
Pima acres dry in the coming season. 

Many of the allotted Pimas have felt that they should not pay opera- 
tion and maintenance charges for their water. They have questioned the legal- 
ity and the moral Tightness of these charges. Congress and the Department 
have considered that the charges were legally proper and should and could be 
paid. The attitude of the resisting Pimas is explainable by their experience 
of going forty years without irrigation water while the white farmers appro- 
priated it. This long and bitter experience was brought to an end by the 
building of the Coolidge Reservoir and the later provision of water, ditches 
and subjugation for the Pima lands. 

The three-year moratorium on water charges, granted by the Depart- 
ment with the consent of the Budget and the Appropriations Committee, had 
come to an end this spring. 

There are approximately 12,000 acres of irrigated Pima land which 
is not allotted but tribal. This land has been planted to alfalfa and hay, 
and the operation has been a profitable one. 

The Tribal Council's action, March 3, authorized that the accumulated 
revenues from the tribal land be used to pay the operation and maintenance 
charges of the allotted lands. Superintendent Robinson, with the Governor and 
Secretary of the Council, went immediately to the Coolidge Dam headquarters, 
explained the arrangement and obtained the delivery of the water on the night 
of March 3. 



22 



WE LIVE _IN NEW MEXICO 
By Emerson Ben Yazza, 7th Grade Student 
Albuquerque Indian School, Albuquerque, New Mexico 



In the early days, grew the tall grass 

In the early days, lived many wild deer and buffalo 

The Indians hunted the deer and buffalo. 

When the Indians killed the deer, they had big feasts 

The Indians raised corn and oumpkins 

When they had feasts the women brought pumpkins 

All the Indians had a feast 

Some Indians killed the deer 

When they had tall grass. 



Now, there is no grass 

The deer and buffalo ate the grass 

The cows, goats and sheep ate the grass. 

Now, they have a desert in New Mexico. 

Now, on the reservation the winds blow all 

Now, on the reservation there is no grass. 

The deer and buffalo ate the grass 

The cows ate the grass. 

The wind blows all day • 



day. 



Emerson Ben Yazza wrote this poem as a part of a Soil Conservation 
project being carried on in the seventh grade art class under the super- 
vision of Mrs. Frank Tschohl. 




San \\datoi\je ^>\r*. 



23 



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24 



I NDIAN READER DISAGREES ON JNDIAN KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS . 

M. W. STIRLING AMPLIFIES STATEMENT 

In the December 15 issue of "Indians At Work" , Mr. Matthew W. 
Stirling, Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, in an article entitled 
"Some Misconceptions About The American Indians", discusses briefly the old 
Indian knowledge of medicine. He said, on page 32: 

"It is very generally believed that there are many "lost arts" in 
connection with Indian civilizations. Among these might be listed the be- 
lief that Indian doctors had knowledge of certain specific medicines, usually 
of a vegetable nature, that were particularly potent, and that the "secret" 
of these is now only in the possession of an occasional old person or has 
been entirely lost. This idea received a great deal of stimulation during 
the halcyon days of patent medicine, when Indian remedies were much in vogue. 

"As a matter of fact the Indian believed most sickness to be caused 
by the activity of evil spirits which could be removed only by sorcery. There- 
fore the priest was the physician and treatment consisted in frightening or 
luring away these spirits. In many tribes there was a crude knowledge of the 
therapeutic use of certain plants, but even in these instances their applica- 
tion was deeply rooted in magic. The sweathouse which operated somewhat on 
the principle of a turkish bath was in general use among the Indians, but 
its use could scarcely be termed a curative measure." 

A reader, Mr. White Bison De Forest, differs with Mr. Stirling, 
and asks that his noint of view be -orinted. Mr. Stirling, after reading Mr. 
De Forest's letter, has amplified his own statement. Both are given below. 

******* 

" Editor, Indians @ Wor k: 

"Please put in my answer to friend Mr. Stirling in friendly way. I 
know I cannot answer right, but I know that I know and your readers want only 
the truth. White Bison DeForest ." 

" Yes, Indians Knew His Herbs . 

"This is an answer to Mr. Stirling by an American Indian 77 years old that 
never had a chance when he was a boy to get white man's schooling like our 
boys and girl by the good friend Mr. Collier see they get. 

"Mr. Stirling in 'Misconception Of American Indian' on page 28 in 
December 15 number, 1936. I cannot express myself right but without fear of 
contradiction I thank you to put this in the r>aper 'Indians @ Work.' The 
readers and public must have the truth so they, the readers and public, will 



25 



not have the wrong impression. I make this claim bold , to our friend Mr. 
Stirling, young Indian doctors and scholars of America: that no family doctor 
can conduct his practices, his calling as a family doctor of medicine, with- 
out using medicine discovered by Indians . I will agree they did not know 
about Tinctures, or fluid extracts and they did not have machines for making 
pills and powder, but the healing power was there just the same ; the idea, was 
there. Mr. Stirling refers to Indians knowing about hot water and turkish 
baths, but states you could not say both had any curative power. You start- 
ing something there, Mr. Stirling. Please give us some credit. United States 
Government should answer that one with the millions of dollars they spend at 
Hot Springs, Arkansas and what is claim by Doctors for it; also Virginia Hot 
Springs; that were both used by Indians before white man, and are used to this 
day by rich Indians. I could tell of some other curing waters and springs 
knew by Indians for years and years, Mr. Stirling, I cannot write or talk to 
answer like you - but I know I know, not by books, but, I was born of Indian 
mother and lived both sides of the question. 

"Was you to Chicago World Fair, Mr. Stirling? Did you see the 
wonderful display of medicines that Indian gave to white man? Did you know 
Indians knew liver was good, not five years ago like white doctor gets credit 
for finding out, but years? Did you ever hear about the rich man get a North 
Wood guide Indian man: He cook fish; Indian keep liver and dark meat and 
give white man all nice white meat. Indian do all the heavy work and is 
strong; white man eat white meat and is not strong. You say Indians never knew 
about healing with herbs. What about Cascara Sagrada, bark of California? 
It is now used by every doctor and every hospital in America. What About Qui- 
nine; Winter Green, the starting point of your aspirin or Salicylic Acid; 
Nux-Vomica - Dog Button (Strychine). White man's great school never any way 
discover Digitalis (Foxglove). Here are others: 



Blood Root for children's worms, 

Wild Cherry Bark 

Coltsfoot 

May Apple (Podophylum) 

Black Root 

Catnip 

Black Cohash 

Peppermint 

Sage 

Witch Hazel 

Virginia Snake Root 

Iron Weed 

Slippery Elm Bark 

Lobelia 

Camphor 

Mistletoe 

Hoarhound 



Viburnum 

Squaw Vine 

Dandelion 

Blackberry for dysentery 

Plantain Leaves 

Sheep Sorrel 

White Oak Bark (Tannic acid) 

Flag root 

Mullein 

Gentian 

Horsetail Grass 

Licorice 

Columbine 

Life Everlasting 

Bone set 

Linden 

Juniper 



26 



"And hundreds of others known to the writer. Every one of these is 
now used by family doctors and on shelf or counter drawers of every drugstore 
in America. Mr. Stirling, please believe me, I write this in a friendly way. 
I know you know "better and I only want the young Indian that are putting on 
the fancy trimmings of white man to know there folks did know there Herbs; 
and I only wish I could get riermission to tell all I know not from books but 
from knowledge gained by my hands and 77 years a true American. 

"The man that knows he know, 

White Bison De Forest." 

**************** 

Mr. Stirling Replies 

"The subject of Indian knowledge of medicines is an extremely com- 
plex one and there is a very large literature covering it. Everett E. Edwards 
in the United States Department of Agriculture Bibliographical Contributions 
Number 23 (Edition 2), June, 1933, gives more than thirty titles of books 
and articles on this subject alone. The brief article 'Medicine 1 in the 
Handbook of the American Indians gives a fair general exposition of the subject. 

"The aboriginal Indians were of course ignorant of the nature of 
disease, attributing it for the most part to supernatural agencies and treat- 
ment as a rule was designed along these lines. It should be said also that 
the whites of this period were for the most part almost as ignorant, if not 
as much so, on this same subject. The Indians were great experimentalists 
and tried many things for medicinal purposes, particularly if they had unusual 
aromas, tastes, or stimulating or narcotic effects. In some instances, it 
can now be demonstrated that the effect was probably beneficial for certain 
ailments for which they were used. 

"It was formerly believed that malaria was caused by miasmas rising 
from the night air. Our grandparents thought that by closing the windows and 
keeping out the night air they would exclude malaria. This was a case where 
a method of prevention worked, even though the theory behind it was totally 
wrong. Just as in taking medicine, whatever it is, the patient usually re- 
covers; consequently the efficacy of any sort of medical treatment can usually 
be proved over and over again in the life of any individual. This has been a 
great aid to doctors and medicine men since the idea of doing something for 
physical ailments first originated. So it was undoubtedly with the Indians in 
numerous cases. 

"The Indians, like the early Europeans, used herbs so extensively 
for medicinal purposes that there were very few plants that were not put to 
use in some manner and it was inevitable that some of these have later been 
demonstrated to contain certain beneficial principles. 



27 



"Quinine, which comes from a South American plant, as far as we know, 
was never used by the Indians, "but was first used by the Spaniards. In my 
little article, I, of course, only mentioned this medicinal subject in passing, 
stating that one of the popular misconceptions of the whites regarding the In- 
dians was that they had knowledge of many efficacious and mysterious medicines 
not known to others. Furthermore, as I stated in the article, no general 
statements of this or any other sort can be made to apply with equal weight 
to all of the American Indian grouos . The Aztecs, for instance, went much 
farther in the experimental study of herbs for medicinal purposes that did 
any of the tribes within the boundaries of the United States-. 

Sincerely yours, 
M. W. Stirling" 




A Sweat Tent At Fort Berthold, 

North Dakota. No Business 

In The Winter. 



ir 



28 



INDIAN SERVI CE EDUCATION WORKERS MEET AT EOT SPRINGS . ARKANSAS 

More than a hundred members of the Education Division met at a 
series of conferences held at Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 15 to 19. 

The general meetings were prefaced by an informal dinner the evening 
of February 15 of the various state and regional superintendents of Education 
and members of the Washington Office staff. February 16 and 17 were devoted 
to conferences at which superintendents discussed .their tasks and responsi- 
bilities. The attempt to decentralize the work of the Education Division from 
Washington to these state and regional workers, and in turn, from them to the 
local jurisdictions has brought up problems of method and questions of demarca- 
tion of responsibility. All these questions were aired and some steps taken 
toward their solution. 

Public school relations were among the major items of discussion 
during the entire four days. Representatives of the Minnesota State Department 
of Education were in attendance and their presentations of the manner in which 
Minnesota is handling Indian tuition money evoked considerable interest. 

Educational field agents and social workers met with the regional 
superintendents on February 18 and 19. They discussed problems of decentral- 
ization and worked toward a clarification of joint responsibility and admin- 
istrative relationships. 



EDUCATION WORKERS ATTEND PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS 

Indian Service Education workers took part in the series of nation- 
al education meetings held in February. The American Council of Guidance and 
Personnel Associations, the National Vocational Guidance Association, and the 
National Association of Deans of Women met in New Orleans February 17 to 20. 
Indian Service staff members were particularly interested in the sessions on 
rural young people's problems. 

The National Education Association Department of Superintendents 
conference followed, also in New Orleans, with an attendance of over 10,000 
public and private school superintendents. A number of Indian Service school 
superintendents attended. 

The Progressive Education Association, of which Willard W. Beatty 
is the retiring president and Dr. W. Carson Ryan, Jr., of the Carnegie Founda- 
tion, is the newly elected president, held its national conference February 
25-27 in St. Louis. Conference themes centered around: the ideal of democ- 
racy, both in educational systems and in Government; the recognition of the 
family as a basic unit in our Government; and with the necessity of educa- 
tors', and of parents', keeping pace with the social changes of the present day. 



29 



LULA BELLE - FORT BERTHOLD IN NORTH DAKOTA 

By P. J. Van Alstyne 

Acting District Highway Engineer - Indian Service 



The picture shown here shows a rotary 
snowplow in action on the Fort Berthold Reserva- 
tion in North Dakota. The unit was built by the 
Road Department in its shop from numerous parts 
assembled from sources in and around the reserva- 
tion. The frame consists of an old Army Liberty 
truck. The rear drive wheels were moved back on 
the frame and the Liberty motor was replaced with 
a 125 H.P. Hercules engine which drives both the 
truck and the rotary. The motor and the plow 
were obtained from the State Highway Department 
of North Dakota from equipment that had been con- 
demned. The chassis was equipped with pneumatic 
tires on rebuilt wheels from an old two-ton Reo 
truck. The entire cost of the unit, including 
parts and the labor of assembling, amounted to 
$306. The rotary has proved to be one of the 
most valuable snow-removing units at Fort Berthold 
and has already repaid the small amount of money 
it cost. 

The rotary has created widespread inter- 
est throughout the reservation and has been nick- 
named "Lula Belle" by the Indians. It will throw 
. snow 125 feet from the roadway. A number of main- 
,ary wp tenance engineers from the state have inspected 
the plow in action and have complimented members of the Fort Berthold Road 
Department on their ability to construct a unit of this type from a miscel- 
laneous outlay of parts. A similar unit of the same size and capacity if 
purchased would cost approximately $8,000. 




COVER DESIGN 



The cover design for this issue was drawn by Alva Stidham, a 
Seminole-Creek Indian at the Shawnee Indian Sanatorium, Shawnee, Oklahoma. 
It is taken from a basket design. 



30 



COOPERATION BETWEEN INDIAN SERV ICE AND INDIAN COUN CILS; 
HANDLING- OF RESERVATION COMPLAINTS. 



Indian Office Circular 3195, dated February 19, clarifies the re- 
lationship between the trihal councils and reservation employees, and sug- 
gests methods for handling misunderstandings and complaints. The text of 
the circular follows. 

********** 

...The Indian Service needs the help of the trihal councils and 
committees, and the tribal councils and the Indians whom they represent need 
the help of the Indian Service. We must all work together. 

Need Fo r Coope r ation 

In order to work together happily and without misunderstanding, it 
is necessary that everyone know just what his duties are and how far his 
authority goes. Perhaps I can make myself clearer by using as illustration 
something with which everyone is familiar. When I think of our work, I am 
reminded of a wagon and a team of horses going down the road. Not so long 
ago, the Indian Service was doing all the driving. All the Indian did was 
to sit in the wagon box, and it did not matter a great deal how much he got 
jounced and bumoed around. Nowadays, the Indian, through his tribal coun- 
cils and other representative bodies, is sitting up on the driver's seat 
alongside the Indian Service. 

But, of course, two people on the driver's seat means that a dif- 
ficult situation is created. Everyone knows what would happen to a real team 
of horses if two people tried to drive at the same time. One would pull at 
one rein, the other would tug at the other rein, and the wagon would very 
soon be wandering all over the road and it would be luck if team and wagon 
and two drivers and all did not land in the ditch. 

TThat one does, of course, in a case like that is to take turns at 
driving. The man who is familiar with a certain stretch of road drives while 
they are covering that stretch. When they come to another part of the road 
which the other man knows better, then he takes his turn at handling the 
reins. With each one doing his part along the piece of road where he can do 
the best job of driving, they make steady progress and reach the end of their 
journey in safety. 

Now the Indian Service is one driver and the Indian tribal coun- 
cils are the other driver. Each one must do his part to cooperate with the 

31 



other fellow so that we shall all have a safe trip and reach our goal. And 
that means that each one must do the driving when and in the place where it 
is his turn to drive. 

We can only get along if each one of us knows what his job is. 

Stat us Of Indian Service Employees 

Some Indians seem to think that the employees of the Indian Service 
are the servants of the Indians. This is not true. Indian Service employees 
serve the Indians, hut they are not the Indians' servants. The Government 
has a special responsibility toward the Indians. It is the duty of the In- 
dian Service to help the Indians and to protect the Indians' property and 
rights, and to assist them in every way toward a better and more prosperous 
life. In doing their job, employees of the Indian Service are expected to 
give sympathetic, personal and devoted attention to the Indians. The value 
of the Indian Service employee is measured by the help he gives the Indians 
and by the progress made by the Indians under his care. But because employees 
of the Indian Service have the duty of helping the Indians does not make them 
servants of the Indians. Employees of the Indian Service are servants of 
the whole people and Government of the United States. 

It is necessary that the position of Indian Service employees be 
clearly understood in order that misunderstandings may be avoided. We want 
to avoid as many as we can. 

Oonrolaints As Signs Of Something Wrong 

We are bound, of course, to have some disagreements and misunder- 
standings. There will be a number of complaints. 

Complaints are not always bad things. A complaint is very often 
like a fever. Fever in itself is not a sickness, but it tells that sickness 
is there. Very often it is a good thing, because it tells when sickness is 
coming on and one can go to the doctor before it is too late. The same thing 
is true of complaints. A complaint very often shows that something is wrong; 
if the complaint is investigated in time, the wrong can be corrected before 
it has grown into more serious trouble. 

The United States is a democratic country and this means that any 
person shall have the right to disapprove and protest the policies of those 
who have been selected to govern over him. The Indian Service recognizes 
and follows this principle. Any Indian - or, for that matter, any person, 
Indian or white - has the right to protest against any policy of the Indian 
Service or against the improper actions of any Indian Service employee. This 
right, however, does not mean that people have the privilege of going around 
making petty, untrue and selfish complaints. 



32 



Right s Of Indian Service Employees 

Indian Service employees, especially Civil Service employees, have 
the right to he protected against complaints which are made without good 
reason and sometimes merely out of spite. Complaints of that sort not only 
hurt the employee as an individual, hut they hurt his effectiveness as a 
Federal official and therefore they hurt the effectiveness of the entire 
Service. The Indian Service will make every effort to see that its employees 
are protected against complaints which are made without an honest purpose. 

Rights Of Complainants 

At the same time, those who have good cause to complain also ha.ve 
their rights. Every complaint must he carefully considered and thoroughly 
looked into, and, if any wrong is discovered, the wrong must he righted. 
The Indian Office assures every person, Indian or white, that his right to 
protest against the policies and actions of the Indian Service will he pro- 
tected. 



Procedure In Handling Complaints 

No hard and fast rule for the handling of complaints can he set 
down. 

The following procedure, however, may he stated as a hasis which 
will cover a large majority of cases: 

1. Complaints received hy the Washington Office against the Indian 
Service personnel on any reservation or against policies confined to 
that reservation will be referred to the Superintendent, with two ex- 
ceptions. One exception is when the complaint is so serious that it 
must be investigated by a representative of the Washington Office or 
by an agent of the Division of Investigations. The other exception is 
in cases where the Superintendent's interest is so intense as to pre- 
vent his acting as a fair judge of the facts and equities. 

2. The Washington Office may refer complaints to the Superintendent 
with or without a recommendation that he call upon the tribal council 

or a district council or any committee of such councils for assistance 
and advice; in case no such recommendation is made, it will be left to 
the discretion of the Superintendent to determine what course he shall 
take. 

3. In all cases, it should be definitely understood that employees 
of the Indian Service are responsible only to their official superiors. 
No control over any Indian Service employee can be legally exercised by 
Indian councils or committees. 



33 



4. Only when called upon by his official superior can an employee 
he required to make answer to any complaint or charge against him. No 
Indian council or committee has the right to request an Indian Service 
employee to answer charges. 

5. If any council or committee believes that the circumstances of 
a complaint require an answer by an Indian Service employee, they will 
state their case to the Superintendent. It will be the responsibility 
of the Superintendent to say whether the employee shall be called on 
to make answer. If the Superintendent decides in the affirmative, any 
subsequent proceedings shall be under the sole authority of the Super- 
intendent. 



Duties Of Indian Councils And Committees 

Now, what about the duties and responsibilities of tribal and 
district councils and their committees in the matter of handling complaints? 

Complaints may be made directly to a council or committee by the 
Indians, or may be referred to a council or committee by the Superintendent. 

The first duty of Indian councils and committees is to sift out 
complaints which are made for spite, or for selfish reasons, or merely to 
stir up trouble. The Indian councils should take particular care to see 
that the people they represent make only complaints which are worthy of con- 
sideration. It is plnin human nature that, if the Indian Office is con- 
stantly receiving a stream of idle and unfounded complaints, it will soon 
regard all complaints as idle and unfounded. 

Next, the Indian councils and committees should recognize the fact 
that complaints are usually of two types. The more serious ones deal with 
situations and conditions which are the result of the laws passed by Con- 
gress, particularly the laws making appropriations, or are the result of 
general policies put into effect from Washington. The other kind of com- 
plaints includes those which arise out of the actions or the policies of 
the Indian Service employees at the local Agency. 

Councils and committees must learn to distinguish between these 
two types of complaints. The first type can be handled only through changes 
of law, or amendments to appropriation acts, or some general change of 
policy by the Washington Office. Where the complaints are about a local 
condition, on the other hand, it is generally a fact that the Superintend- 
ent is more concerned than anyone else with investigating the complaint and 
seeing that anything wrong is corrected. This is true, if for no other 
reason, because the Superintendent is held responsible by the 'Washington 
Office for the work done by the employees on his staff. 



34 



Finally, tribal councils and committees have a definite responsi- 
bility, after they have made sure that the complaint deals with a real 
problem or injustice, of seeing to it that the case is given thorough con- 
sideration. They should see that the complaint is presented to the Super- 
intendent in such a way as to bring out the truth fully and fairly. They 
should cooperate with the Superintendent and help him in any way which he 
requests. 

If the council or the committee pressing the complaint believes 
that they are not receiving justice from the Superintendent or that he is 
not investigating the complaint with energy, then the members of the coun- 
cil or committee have the right to bring the matter to the attention of the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The case should be presented to the Com- 
missioner through the Superintendent, and the Superintendent will be re- 
quired to transmit to the Commissioner the entire record of the complaint. 



Let Us All Work Together 

as I have said above, complaints are for the most part merely 
outward signs , indicating some of the larger problems toward the solution 
of which the Indian Service and the tribal councils must work together. 
There is scarcely any tribe which is not faced by a shortage of land and 
other resources, which does not know conditions of bad housing and unheal th- 
ful living conditions, which does not suffer from an unnecessary amount of 
disease, and which does not face problems of law and order and of human re- 
lations within the tribe. It is only by working together, with each person 
doing his part, that the Indian Service and the tribal councils can really 
meet these many problems, find the solutions and progress side by side to- 
ward a better day for the Indians of our country. 



John Collier, 
Commissioner. 



*********** *** 



WHO'S WHO 

Ruth Willis Pray, who contributed the article on "Three Pots - 
And What Lies Behind Them", on page 38 of this issue, took her degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Chicago in 1925, and is now on 
the faculty of the Oklahoma College for Women. She has done excavation 
work for three years in Jemez and Chaco Canyon under the School for Amer- 
ican Research. 



35 



COTTAGES HOUSE OLDER BOYS AT CARSON AGENCY IN STEWART , NEVADA 
By Albert M. Hawley, Boys' Adviser 



. 












1 ] 


1 f 






MAkm 


...|i 



Part Of The New Cottage Group At Carson Agency, Nevada 

The cottage units for older hoys at the Carson Boarding School in 
Stewart, Nevada, are perhaps unique in the Indian Service. When funds for a 
new dormitory became available, Superintendent Alida C. Bowler saw the chance 
to house the boys in groups in which they could enjoy at least an approxima- 
tion of family life. After some adjustments with the Construction Division, 
the original plans for a single large dormitory were changed, and five cot- 
tages are now completed. They are an attractive group, all built of native 
colored stone with simple, low lines. 

We believe that the cottage-type unit has many advantages over the 
congregate institution. In our cottage groupings, each house has its own 
cottage master, who, as far as possible, tries to create the atmosphere of a 
home. 

The cottage masters were drawn from our own existing force, and so 
far our personnel is working out well. We were fortunate in having here young 
men with the interest and capacity to be trained on the job. As far as pos- 
sible masters are chosen on the basis of personality, experience, training 
and ability to get along with and enjoy the companionship of the boys. The 
cottage master has immediate charge of the cottage housekeeping and social 
life. 



36 



In each cottage there is a student council of three members. The 
three members of each cottage council make up the inter-cottage council. The 
three members of a cottage council have the management of cleaning details, 

distribution of towels, collection of soiled linen and clothes and other 
minor details of group housekeeping. 

The rules and regulations are made a part of the student's life, a 
responsibility similar to that of a home. The rules function naturally in 
the lives of the students as far as possible and every effort is made not to 
create a too well-regulated environment that would make later adjustment to 
the outside world too difficult. 

There are from 20 to 30 boys in each cottage. The grouping of 
students in a cottage is an important factor in the success of the whole plan. 
There is some question in my mind as to what kind of grouping is the most 
satisfactory. The present plan is to group in each unit, boys from twelve 
to twenty-one years of age. As far as possible the boy is placed in a con- 
genial cottage group, one which suits his personality. We are experimenting 
at present with a group composed entirely of boys coming from one jurisdic- 
tion, the Warm Springs Indians from Oregon. Consideration is always given 
to boys' natural groupings and individual preferences. 

Competition between cottages is very keen at all times. The interest 
is kept up by offering prizes for the best cottage and the outstanding room 
in each cottage every four weeks. 

Mrs. M. L. Hurley has charge of overseeing the housekeeping, clothes 
room and so forth. As a rule, boys are not considered first-class housekeepers, 
but with Mrs. Hurley's guidance and supervision the boys do remarkably well. 
Mrs. Hurley deserves a lot of credit in this work as our cottage masters are 
all young Indian men with very limited experience in the care and upkeep of 
a cottage equipped with all the conveniences of a modern home. The kitchen- 
ettes are directly under the matron's supervision, with one in each cottage. 
Coffee-making in the kitchenette is the favorite pastime; occasionally there 
is a rabbit stew. 

Each house council meets once a week and the inter-cottage council 
twice a month with the boys' adviser. Minor problems of discipline are 
handled by the inter-cottage council and the rare serious problems go to the 
Guidance Committee composed of various faculty members. 

After having been a student in a Government boarding school and 
after working in two schools, all of the congregate type, I am convinced 
that the unit system is the only real way of housing boarding school children. 
It builds up initiative, group responsibility, group loyalty and friendship. 

************ 



37 



THMIE POTS - AND WHAT LIES BEHIND THEM 
By Ruth Willis Pray 




Jemez Pot 



An art object - bowl, weapon, weaving 
- is lovely in itself. It is more: It is a 
projection of the minds behind the hands that 
constructed it. And therein lies the value of 
my three pots. 

Pot number one is a San Domingo pot 
which was made some time before 1800 and ta.ken 
in trade by the family of my Jernez friend who 
presented it to me. In modern Santo Domingo 
ware, flowers and birds on a cream background 
are typical. This pot is of an old ware uninflu- 
enced by outside work. It shows black, geomet- 
rical designs on a light cream ground. This is 
the rain-drop nattem, very beautiful in con- 
ception and execution. Bound up in this bowl 
is the philosophy of a people - a people who 
knew their dependence on a nature that gave, 
first of her gifts, the life -producing rain. 

All Santo Domingo ceremonial life is held in a' moment's suspension in this 

depiction of the rain-drop pattern on this bowl. 

Pot number two came from Acoma - Acoma, the Sky-City. This proud 
people live en the summit of a sandstone mesa, three hundred and fifty-seven 
feet in height. 

Acoma pottery is the thinnest and lightest in weight of all modern 
ware. Even if design meant nothing, one could pretty well pick out a niece 
of Acoma by its delicacy. The base of an Acoma pot is likely to be red or 
dark brown; the slip is white to yellow cream. From the neck to the red or 
brown area of the base makes up the design base. An old and characteristic 
design is of a geometric type. Within the last fifty years there have ap- 
peared flowers and birds - the macaw and road-runner, brought in from Sia. 

My Acoma pot can be dated at about 1875. Two circumstances met at 
that date. One had to do with shaoe; the other with design. About 1875, 
women potters were scratching through ruins to find sherds bearing old, 
traditional designs. Shortly after that time this shape was abandoned but 
in 1675 the shane was still in use and the ancient designs were just being 
restored. The division of this design into neck, shoulder and belly with 
that simple, geometric band separating them, is distinctive. 



38 



And the design! It is 
called the maze or the swirl, and 
here it is topped with a cloud ter- 
race. Insight into its importance 
came to me at the Chaco Canyon Re- 
search Station. The Canyon is 
some twelve miles long and scarcely 
more than a mile wide. Here have 
been found some fourteen major 
ruins of an earlier culture. Great 
communal pue"blos they are, of five 
stories in height and covering 
several acres each; great kivas or 
ceremonial buildings and their as- 
sociated structures, and hundreds 
of small house sites, now reduced 
to low, grass covered mounds. Most 
of these Chaco Canyon ruins date from the so-called Great Period of South- 
western archaeology. The earliest dates so far found for the larger ruins 
are 861 A. D. at Una Veda, 898 at Penasco Blanco and 919 at Pueblo BonitO. 
The period of abandonment came in the years between 1050 and 1130. And how 
is this known? 







*! R 


T .'^ 


. j -^ 






, 




1 


■i\ ■ f -M 


. 


r 





Acoma Pot 



At the University of Arizona is a Professor Douglas who has made 
a name for himself in astronomy. Sun spots and their relation to periods 
of drought are but one of his specialities. Then, one day, he conceived 
the idea that a record of weather conditions in the Southwest should be re- 
corded in the tree rings. So, patiently, he studied tree rings until, by 
matching rings, he extended a chart of rings back to 600 A. D. When the 
archaeologist finds a sizable viga - log roof support - he pours paraffin, 
diluted in gasoline, over the specimen, wraps it up tightly in gauze and 
sends it to Dr. Douglas. He or one of his assistants matches it up with 
his chart and thus tells exactly the year in which the tree from which it 
was taken was cut down. 

THe National Geographic Society sent Professor Judd out to excavate 
Pueblo Bonito at the beginning of this century and the research station has 
carried on his work. 

Some of Judd' s Navajo workmen - one Dan in particular - have stayed 
on with the station and acted as diggers and are generally an invaluable 
source of information and inspiration to the eager student. 

There came a day when I sat in the shade of a ruin wall, waiting 
for old Dan to shovel out the fill from a kiva. I had scratched around 
all morning uncovering a bench. The hot desert sun was getting in its work 
when the voice of a lad workinf in ethno-botany reached me. Its owner 
plumped himself down to chat when into the midst of our conversation came 



39 



a scorpion. We called Dan so that we might learn the Navajo name for the 
creature. He picked up a stick, quickly made a swirl about it and struck 
it in the head. Blandly he smiled, said "dead", and went hack to work. A 
revealing gesture, indeed! 

By all the rules of the game the spirit of the scorpion could not 

find his way out of the swirl - or maze - and take vengeance on his slayer. 

So close is the man of the desert - the food grower - to his world, his 
environment. 

The earliest pottery carries this design; symbol, evidently of the 
power of its maker over life or death; symbol, as well, of protection. It 
is on my Acoma pot; it is on the rocks of the canyon; it is in ancient weav- 
ing. It is in the blood of a people who feel as one with their world. 

In the area and about the area of Chaco Canyon are evidences of a 
still older civilization. There are remains of homes built much on the or- 
der of modern storage places. Small pits were dug in the open or upon the 
floors of caves. These pits were lined with slabs of stone set on end and 
covered with poles, brush and plaster. Since these people did excellent 
basketry and no pottery is found, they are known as Basket Makers. 

Just to the north of Chaco is Mesa Verde, a community somewhat older 
than Cha.co's. It was a community that radiated far. Prom such a community 
came my last pot - part of a cache found by "desert rats." 

Mrs. Marjory Tischy, who teaches pottery at the University of New 
Mexico and restores the excavated, broken pots for the Museum of Santa Fe, 
dated this pot at 800. It was a pot used in ceremonies. Note the effigy 
handle, the four bird tail feather points, the cloud terrace border, the 
falling rain decoration. 

Even before Columbus crossed the ocean, before the Crusades, when 
Charlemagne was .being crowned head of the Holy Roman Empire - this pot was 
lying in an abandoned cave. There it continued to lie for 1100 years, ap- 
parently none the worse for the rest. An art object is lovely in itself but 
it grows lovelier as one learns to feel something of the culture that lay 
behind its creation. 







Prehistoric Pot 
40 



THE SAGA OP IMP IAN EMER&ENCY CONSERVATION WORK ON THE CROW RESERVATION 
By Ray Chagnon, Jr., I.E.C.W. Forester 







I.E.C.W. Spring-Reservoir Development, 1936 - Pry or Area 

The Crows were a bit dubious of I.E.C.W. when it first started. To 
them, it seemed to have too much of a martial atmosphere and the Crows were 
not much interested in military or semi-military organizations. 

As I.E.C.W. came under the direction of Indian Service policy, it 
developed a more mature and long-time outlook as its objective. On the two 
and one-quarter million acres of land which comprise the Crow Reservation, 
the pinch of drought conditions had already been felt, by the time ECW started. 

Crow Reservation is primarily a stock growing area, although three 
streams, the Big Horn River, Little Horn River and Pryor Creek provide ir- 
rigation water for three fertile valleys which produce quantities of fine 
agricultural produce. 

The concern of ECW and the Forestry Division has been directed to- 
ward two objectives; the preservation of the resources already existing and 
the development of latent resources. 

Keeping What We Have 

The preservation of the existing resources meant maintaining the 
watersheds of the three streams mentioned before and protecting the range 
grass from fire. The tremendous productive capacity of ECW was swung into 
motion to achieve these aims. 



41 



Lookout towers, ranger stations and fire guard cabins were established 
in the three ranges of mountains overlooking the reservation. Telephone lines 
and truck trails were built into the three mountain ranges, Wolf, Big Horn 
and Pryor. New units of construction to suppress and prevent fire are still 
being built in the mountains and on the prairie. 

Despite the extremely hazardous conditions resulting from the drought, 
the fine grass - the reservation's most valuable asset - was preserved almost 
intact. On July 4, 1936, a fire allegedly set by "dudes" was fought in the 
Big Horn Mountains. Before the fire reached the reservation boundary it was 
combated by ECW and Forest Service fire fighters. Practically no damage was 
done to the reservation proper, but the entire watershed of Lodge Grass Creek 
was burned over on the Wyoming side of the Big Horn Mountains. This stream 
is one of the principal sources of water for the Little Horn Irrigation System. 
The anticipated water shortage may be very acute. 

A fire in the Pryor Mountains was also fought before it had crossed 
the reservation boundary. A high degree of cooperation in fire fighting has 
been developed among the U. S. Indian Forest Service, I.E.C.W. and the U. S. 
Forest Service, the last named being the southern neighbor of the Crows. The 
Crow's eastern neighbor is the Tongue River or Northern Cheyenne Reservation, 
which also gives and receives the same cooperation as the southern neighbor. 

Developing New Values; Water 

Beside preserving the vast economic resources of the reservation, 
ECW set to work to develop its productive capacity. Three types of water 
development were pushed to aid in the production of live stock: drilled 
wells, springs, and stock water reservoirs. 

Because Crow has three distinct types of water problems, it was 
necessary to find the best type of water development for each area. Springs 
are developed in the mountains and low rolling hills. This tyoe of water 
development is easily constructed, cheap and economical, and consists simply 
in making available flowing or seeping water which is there already. 

In another area where there are no springs and where water-bearing 
strata lie within three hundred feet of the surface, stock water wells are 
drilled. 

Except in the mountains, the reservation for the most part is 
covered by two types of shale, Colorado and Bearpaw. Where these shales are 
oxidized and weathered they form the typical surface material of the area, 
known as gumbo. The material of the shales is highly impervious to water 
and little water seeps through them from the melting snows or rainfall. Few 
springs are found in the gumbo area and the shale stratum is too thick in 
most -olaces for the drilling of wells. 



42 




In the gumbo area 
stock water reservoirs are 
constructed as the only feas- 
ible type of water development. 
Rainfall on the Crow is almost 
a myth, so the reservoirs have 
to he constructed of suffi- 
cient size to hold stock wa- 
ter from the spring runoff in 
March until the following 
spring. Reservoirs impound- 
ing three to five million 
gallons of water are the most 
efficient for the area. 



Buffalo In Big Horn Mountains 



The water develop- 
ment hy EOT has been a boon 
to better administration of the range by the Forest Service. As this type 
of construction goes on it will enable the Forestry and Grazing Division to 
approach the optimum of range administration and to eliminate possible over- 
grazing and resultant soil erosion. If water is strategically spaced the 
possibility of overgrazing in a particular area approaches zero, under 
capable forestry supervision. 



I.E.C.W. Develops Skilled Personnel 

Crow EOT keeps to its threefold purpose. It creates work for the 
Indians; it develops their reservation for their future needs; and it teaches 
them technical skills. In this period of economic insecurity, acquired skills 
and techniques are a valuable asset. The Crow enrollee earns while he learns. 
The Crows are rapidly taking over the operation and supervision of the tre- 
mendous productive capacities of EOT. When they have succeeded in completely 
operating a "going" concern like EOT, they are well on the road to operating 
their reservation as an integral economic unit. 

The EOT personnel offers a variety of courses for the educational 
advantage of the Crows. A number of men have advanced their skills and body 
of knowledge to take advantage of positions within the EOT- organization. 
The experience they acquire there will enable them to find better jobs in 
other fields of construction than EOT. 

The preponderance of Crow EOT personnel is Crow labor, leadership 
and foremanship. Technical jobs such as surveying, mechanical and concrete 
work are being filled by men who are learning while they are earning. 



duced. 



Accomplishments Add Up To Impressive Total 

The proof of their activity can be summed up in what they have pro- 
The record is shown below: 



43 



2 ranger stations with barns and corrals complete 

2 lookout towers with "barns and corrals complete 

3 guard cabins with barns and corrals complete 
128 miles of telephone line 

157 miles of truck trail 

226 miles of boundary fence 

11 ,135 acres of rodent control 

140 developed springs 

33 drilled wells, totaling 7,750 feet of depth 

14,000 cubic yards of dirt moved in changing the 

channel of the Little Horn River 

133,660 acres of cricket control 

1 machine building and garage, constructed of 
native stone - 32' x 110' 

1,920 man-days of fire guard work 

1,030 acres of slash clean-up 

48 miles of fire lane 

1,645 man-days of fire fighting 

96 signs erected to locate ECW construction 

60 stock-water reservoirs 

11 range demonstration plots 

2 storage sheds - wood construction 
















I.E.C.W. Truck Trail Construction On The Crow Reservation In Montana 



44 



INDIAN SILVER WORK STANDARDS ANNOUNCED BY INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD 



At a meeting of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board held in Albuquer- 
que, New Mexico, February 19, 20 and 21, the Board took, unanimously, a final 
position on standards for Navajo, Pueblo and Hopi silver and turquoise prod- 
ucts. These standards and their enforcing regulations are subject to aporov- 
al by the Secretary of the Interior. (These enforcing regulations have not 
ye t been drawn . ) 

The Board's statement in announcing the standards follows. 

************ 

Navajo, Hopi and Pueblo silver work, as an art and as a -oroduct 
with a "quality" market, has been overwhelmed by machine production. The 
Indian craftsman, struggling to compete in price with the machine-made and 
factory-made imitations, has in turn been forced to adopt a machine technique, 
while at the same time his wages or earnings have been depressed to the 
"sweat-shop" level. Quality has been sacrificed to that extreme where Indian 
jewelry has become hardly more than a curio or a souvenir. 

There is being produced, though in relatively small quantity, In- 
dian silver and turquoise work as fine as ever produced in the older days. 
And there are many Indian craftsmen who, if a quality market can be restored, 
will eagerly and capably produce work as good as the best of earlier times. 

They cannot, however, produce it in price competition with factory 
output, machine output and "bench-work" semi-machine output. 

The Arts and Crafts Board has studied the situation thoroughly and 
has sought the counsel of Indians, of Indian traders and of specialists in 
the marketing of craft products. The Board has reached the conclusion that 
the Government mark should be a"onlied only to the finest quality of wholly 
genuine, truly hand-fashioned and authentic Indian silver and turquoise prod- 
ucts. 

Use of the Government mark is not obligatory on any Indian, any 
factory or any merchant. The Board has no power or nurpose to forbid such 
production by time-saving methods and with machine stereotyped and stinted 
materials as now supplies the curio market. But for that production which 
is worthy of a fine Indian tradition, the Board will make available the 
Government certificate of genuineness and of quality; and the Board will seek 
to widen the existing "auality" market and to find new markets for such out- 
put as deserves the Government mark. In the measure of its success, the 
Board will help to Dring about a larger reward for a greater number of In- 
dian craftsmen and to save from destruction a noble, historic art, which un- 
der right conditions can have a long future. 

45 



Standards For Navajo, Pueblo and Hopi Silver and Turquoise Products 

Subject to the detailed requirements that follow, the Government 
stamp shall be affixed only to work individually produced and to work en- 
tirely handmade. No object produced under conditions resembling a bench- 
work system, and no object in whose manufacture any power-driven machinery 
has been used, shall be eligible for the use of the Government stamp. 

In detail, Indian silver objects, to merit the Government stamp of 
genuineness, must meet the following specifications: 

(1) Material : Silver slugs of 1 ounce weight or other silver 
objects may be used, provided their fineness is at least 
900; and provided further, that no silver sheet shall be 
used. Unless cast, the slug or other object is to be 
hand hammered to thickness and shape desired. The only 
exceptions here are pins on brooches or similar objects; 
ear screws for earrings; backs for tie clasns, and chain - 
which may be of silver of different fineness and mechani- 
cally made. 

(2) Dies: Dies used are to be entirely handmade, with no 
tool more mechanical than hand tools and vise. Dies 
shall contain only a single element of the design. 

(3) Application of dies : Dies are to be apnlied to the 
object with the aid of nothing except hand tools. 

(4) Ap-olique elements in design : All such parts of the 
ornament are to be handmade. If wire is used, it is to 
be handmade with no tool other than a handmade draw plate. 
These requirements apply to the boxes for stone used in 
the design. 

(5) Stone for ornamentation : In addition to turquoise, the 
use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if 
used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial 
means. 

(6) Cutt ing of stone : All stone used, including turquoise, 
is to be hand cut and polished. This permits the use 
of hand or foot-driven wheels. 

(7) Finish : All silver is to be hand polished. 

For the present, the Arts and Crafts Board reserves to itself the 
sole right to determine what silver, complying with the official standards, 
shall be stamped with the Government mark. 



46 



JACKSON CHEQUATAH 1 S HEIRLOOM 




Jackson Chequatah 

Jackson Chequatah is an aged Menominee Indian with a fine family 
of children and stepchildren, a good clearing hack in the forest and a 
cabin tight against the winter's cold near Star Lake, Wisconsin. More than 
ordinary industry has won for Jackson Chequatah his security. 

He speaks the beautiful Menominee language. Twice a year he visits 
the agency at Keshena, where Superintendent Fredenberg and other friends 
welcome him. 

To Chequatah himself, to his family and to his white friends, the 
greatest possession of the old Indian is a little black book Chequatah 
carries in a beaded buckskin pouch. This book, which originally belonged 
to Chequatah 1 s grandfather, Tah-tah-nway, a highly regarded chief of the 
Menominee, contains a letter written by Laurent Solomon Juneau, one of the 
white pioneers and early settlers of Wisconsin and, in 1846, the first mayor 
of Milwaukee. 



On one page of this book of age-browned paper there is a note. 
Still plainly legible, although the ink has faded over 87 years, you may 
read: 

47 



"The bearer of this is one of the Menominee chiefs. I have known 
him for nearly thirty years and do not hesitate to recommend him to the 
consideration of the good white people. He is upright and always does as 
he agrees. The head chief known as Oshkosh never does anything without the 
assistance and advice of the bearer." 

And it is signed, 

"Theresa, Wis., August 3, 1850. Solomon Juneau." 

Collectors have tried to buy the book, but Chequatah refuses to 
sell at any price. A son-in-law interpreted Chequatah 1 s words: 

"Great white man gave book to my grandfather and wrote this. My 
grandfather, Tah-tah-nway, gave it to his son, my father, who gave it to 
me. Soon I will give it to my grandson." 

(The story and photograph of Jackson Chequatah are published through 
the courtesy of Mr. 0. J. Blake and the Wisconsin Conservation Department.) 



CATTARAUGUS INDIANS OP NEW YORK STATE SHARE VITAL COMMUNITY LIFE 



The Cattaraugus Indian communities are rich in voluntary social 
organizations of many kinds, which tie them to one another, and to the white 
world. There are societies to help the aged and needy, and simple forms of 
kindly neighborly group-help in times of trouble - arranging for friends' 
funerals; cutting wood for a family in need. There are three temperance 
groups, led by respected elders. These groups are part of the Iroquois 
Temperance League, founded one hundred and four years ago. There are various 
patriotic societies, women's groups and 4-H clubs. There are several athletic 
organizations for soft ball and basket ball, and there are fine teams playing 
the Indians' inherited lacrosse. Reverend W. David Owl writes in the "Gowanda 
News", Gowanda, New York: 

"High praise goes to the Pine Woods people who for more than a year 
have banded together in the interest of building a community house. They 
have busied themselves, under the direction of a competent committee, in hold- 
ing food sales, putting on a variety of forms of entertainment and holding 
prize contests. Through these means the committee has started a nucleus of 
a fund with which to start this project. A community house is an ideal objec- 
tive, though the realization may be still in the future. It will be a fine 
memorial to the aspirations of people who love their community and who work 
hard in the attempt to bring to it certain imperishable blessings." 



48 



FROM I.E.C.W. REPORTS 



Beetle Control Work At Warm 
Sr> rings (Oregon ) 83 trees were 
treated this week over an area of 
1,130 acres, while the spotters 
found 110 trees over 800 acres. It 
has "been snowing quite a lot during 
the last week and the snow is from 
two to three feet deep in places 
out in the woods which makes it 
hard going for the crews. The wood 
crews have been keeping busy get- 
ting wood for the camps during this 
cold spell. F. blur dock . 

Vari ous Acti vities At New York 
( New York ) With the weather in our 
favor the men are doing very good 
work on the ditch. The ground is 
now frozen to a depth of about 30 
inches. 

In some places we have had to 
use some dynamite to loosen the 
frozen ground. There is very lit- 
tle water to contend with right now 
and the snow has disappeared entire- 
ly. Joseph F. Tarbell . 

Truck Trail Construction At 
New York ( New York ) We have com- 
pleted another 350 feet length of 
grading, blasting and cutting brush 
for roadway on this truck trail. 

We have gone through the most 
part of it this week. The weather 
was cold at times. We worked hard- 
er than usual to keep warm so we 
made good progress this week. Clar - 
ence Gordon, Leader - 

Coal Fires At Navajo ( New Me x - 
ico ) This is only a short report 
on 3CW. These coal fire has been 
burning for several year, since it 
start burning nobody try to stop it, 



we didn't had a way to stop it. Un- 
til last October Mr. Baraxtson and 
others came here and told them all 
about these fires and shows them 
where they were. 

And they told me that these fires 
is going to be put out and he said I 
could work among the crew. 

They didn't attended to these 
fires until later, when I was away 
from here. When I came back here, I 
found that they were working on the 
coal fire but I didn't works for many 
days. 

We had snow here after they start 
the works, for that reason I didn't 
got on the job until four weeks ago. 
Since I am working here we seem to 
like our works. The work is going on 
near my home and the crew are very 
good while they are working here. 

I do appreciate about the work 
on the coal fire that is burning here 
near my places. But I don't know if 
I will work until the work is done. 
But hope I'll stay on the jobs till 
the project works is done. 

Our foreman and leader are very 
good toward the men. They are trying 
to hurry the work. This is all the 
work that we are doing on our project. 
We had been writing these ECW reports 
every week and never had heard any 
reply and we like to hear an answer 
regarding to these reports. Willie 
Pinto . 

Indians At Work And At Play At 
Fort Berth old ( North Dakota ) Our 
winter projects are now in full 
swing. Crews working on the Forest 



49 



Stand Improvement project are mak- 
ing fine progress. The range reveg- 
etation project has also been start- 
ed. Five crews are working on the 
seeding of sweet clover on va.rious 
tracts of tribal land. Over 135 
acres of this seeding was comoleted 
during the past week. The crew 
working on the timber estimate proj- 
ect is doing fine work and will he 
finishing up their work in another 
three or four weeks. 

Our I.2.C.W. basket ball team 
representing the Elbowoods District 
is on a rampage this season. They 
have developed a fine fast team both 
on defense and offense, out of men 
several of whom xvarticipated in bas- 
ket ball for the first time last 
year. In the fifteen starts made up 
to date no losses have been chalked 
up and they have averaged a score of 
32 points to their opponents 19 per 
game. Out of these 15 games only 5 
have been played on the home court, 
thus giving an advantage in most 
games, to the opponents. Carl Cor - 
nelius , Junior Clerk . 

Fire Hazard Removal At Tomah 
School ( Wisconsin ) The work on the 
fire hazard removal project is mov- 
ing steadily. The men are experi- 
enced at this type of work and need 
very little coaching. The snow is 
deep in the woods making the work 
somewhat slower than we would like. 
However, these men are all woodsmen 
and familiar with working in the 
deep snow and there is no real hard- 
ship. 

The project of truck trail im- 
provement was started on Monday last, 
after two miles of little used log- 
ging road had been opened up for 



travel . Two teams on a homemade snow- 
plow were required to clear the way 
for the transport truck. In places 
where the snow was too deep the men 
had to shovel. We are at present 
clearing a trail through some inac- 
cessible wooded land to facilitate 
the fire fighting in this sector. 
Willard Bacon, Trail Locator. 

Ren or t From Consolidated Chip - 
pewa ( Minnesota ) Fire hazard re- 
duction was started on the Connect- 
ing trail and also on the uoper West 
Bois Forte trail through the Norway 
slashings. The Woodduck lookout 
cabin was framed and sheeted and is 
now ready for the roof. 

The camp basket ball team met 
the Hibbing Aces in the recreation 
hall Thursday evening and emerged 
with a close overtime victory, 34 to 
32. It was one of those nerve ting- 
ling games that makes business for 
the sanatariums . Lvle E. Howell . 

Horse Trail Maintenance At Sa - 
lem School ( Oregon ) Work on this 
project was resumed on Monday. There 
was still snow on the ground but we 
have been able to make reasonable 
progress. Work will be completed 
within a short time. Wolverton Orton , 
Assistant Leader . 

Work On Boundar y Fence At S ho- 
shone ^Wyoming) Work on the bound- 
ary fence was started this week and 
good progress was made. The fence 
is almost conroleted up to the south- 
east corner of the boundary fence. 
The fence will then turn north. The 
trails have been in fairly good con- 
dition for tr?>.veling to and from 
work although the snow has been 
drifted on the trail. 



50 



Several new members moved out 
to the family camp this week. On 
Tuesday nights safety-first lessons 
are given at the family camp. On 
Wednesday nights safety-first les- 
sons are given at the boarding camp. 
Leisure time activities are spent 
in reading, card games and story 
telling. Thomas J. Penan . 

Truck Trail Maintenance At Tur - 
tle Mountain ( North Dakota ) Approx- 
imately six-tenths of a mile was 
graveled this week using one dump 
truck and fifteen teams. Some dif- 
ficulty is being experienced because 
of considerable amounts of snow that 
necessarily reduces progress. We 
have been fortunate to date that on- 
ly one day has been missed because 
of inclement weather conditions. The 
enrollees on this work should be 
commended highly because of their 
regular manner in which they report. 
For the past two months these men 
have contended with blizzards, sub- 
zero weather and other hardships, 
yet their spirit seems undaunted 
and a remarkable amount of work has 
been obtained. Donald Flahart . 

Report From Uintah And Ouray 
( Utah ) For this week here at camp 
the crew on the camp maintenance 
work No. 1C, has hauled food and 
supplies from the Fort for our camp 
use. The night watchman on this 
project has been on the go nightly 
keeping fires to keep things from 
freezing. 

The camp construction crew (No. 
C) ha8 progressed, very nicely, 

blocking up and loading 4 tents to 

be taken to the new project and camp 



to be set up. They also have been 
getting all ma.terials packed and 
stored, both to take there and be 
left here. They have also cut and 
prepared fuel to be used on the new 
project. 

The weather conditions have 
been very unfavorable to do much 
work but the crews are doing very 
fine work regardless of the condi- 
tions. Lee Mc Combs , Leader . 

Well Digging At Sells ( Arizona ) 
The crew has done excellent work 
this week in lowering the well to a 
total depth of 57 feet. They passed 
through the caliche bed at a depth of 
49 feet. At this point they entered 
an old river bottom in which it was 
hoped we would find water. We have 
now progressed 8 feet in the sand and 
gravel of the old river bed and have 
found no water. Digging has been 
temporarily stopped at this point to 
enable us to crib up the loose rock 
and sand. 

At the upper surface of the riv- 
er sands and on one side of the well 
we uncovered a group of highly 
charred rocks. This, of course, aroused 
our interest. On investigation it was 
determined that these rocks were prob- 
ably the result of some old fires. 
Dr. Byron Cumraings, of the University 
of Arizona, looked them over. Among 
them he found some that were quite 
distinct raetates, while others ap- 
peared to be stone hatchets or hammers. 
He has taken quite an interest in the 
find due to the possibility that this 
might be the location of some ancient 
camping ground. William J. Wagner . 



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